PART ONE: WIRELESS AD HOC, SENSOR AND MESH NETWORKING

1. Introduction                                                                                                  

      1.1 Information Security

            1.1.1 Computer Security

            1.1.2 Communications Security

      1.2 Scope of the Book

      1.3 Structure of the Book

      1.4 Electronic Resources for the Book

      1.5 Review Questions

2. Wireless Ad Hoc, Sensor and Mesh Networks                                         

      2.1 Ad Hoc Networks and Applications

            2.1.1 Application Examples

            2.1.2 Challenges

      2.2 Sensor and Actuator Networks

            2.2.1 Application Examples

            2.2.2 Challenges

      2.3 Mesh Networks

            2.3.1 Application Examples

            2.3.2 Challenges

      2.4 Tactical Communications and Networks

            2.4.1 Blue Force Tracking System

      2.5 Factors Influencing the Design of Wireless Ad Hoc, Sensor and Mesh Networks

      2.6 Review Questions

3. Wireless Medium                                                                                        

      3.1 Wireless Channel Fundamentals and Security

3.1.1 Capacity

3.1.2 Electromagnetic Spectrum

3.1.3 Path Loss and Attenuation

3.1.4 The Other Transmission Impairments and Jamming

3.1.5 Modulation and Demodulation

3.1.6 Manchester Encoding

3.1.7 Multiplexing and Duplexing

      3.2 Advanced Radio Technologies

            3.2.1 Directional and Smart Antennas

            3.2.2 Software Radios

            3.2.3 Cognitive Radios

            3.2.4 Multi-radio/Multi-channel Systems

            3.2.5 MIMO Systems

      3.3 Review Questions

4. Medium Access and Error Control                                                             

      4.1 Medium Access Control

            4.1.1 Generic MAC Protocols

            4.1.2 MAC Protocols for Wireless Ad Hoc, Sensor and Mesh Networks

      4.2 Error Control

            4.2.1 Error Correction

            4.2.2 Error Detection

      4.3 Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks

            4.3.1 IEEE 802.16

            4.3.2 WiMax

      4.4 Wireless Local Area Networks

            4.4.1 IEEE 802.11

            4.4.2 WiFi

      4.5 Wireless Personal Area Networks

            4.5.1 IEEE 802.15.1

            4.5.2 Bluetooth

            4.5.3 IEEE 802.15.4

            4.5.4 Zigbee

            4.5.5 WiMedia

      4.6 Review Questions

5. Routing                                                                                                         

5.1 Internet Protocol and Mobile IP

5.1.1 IPv4, IPv6 and Security in IP

5.1.2 Distance Vector and Link State Algorithms

5.1.3 Internetworking

5.1.4 Multicasting, Geocasting, Anycasting and Broadcasting

5.1.5 Mobile IP

5.2 Routing in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

5.2.1 Flooding and Gossiping

5.2.2 Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector Routing

5.2.3 Dynamic Source Routing

5.3 Routing in Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks

5.3.1 Directed Diffusion

5.3.2 Sensor Protocols for Information via Negotiation (SPIN)

5.3.3 Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH)

5.3.4 Power Aware Many-to-Many Routing (PAMR)

5.4 Review Questions

6. Reliability, Flow and Congestion Control                                                   

      6.1 Reliability

6.1.1. Non-Acknowledgement Based Schemes

6.1.2. Acknowledgement Based Schemes

      6.2 Flow and Congestion Control

      6.3 Review Questions

7. Other Challenges and Security Aspects                                                     

      7.1 Localization and Positioning

      7.2 Time Synchronization

      7.3 Addressing

      7.4 Data Aggregation and Fusion

      7.5 Data Querying

      7.6 Coverage

      7.7 Mobility Management

      7.8 Cross-layer Design

      7.9 Review Questions

PART TWO: SECURITY IN WIRELESS AD HOC, SENSOR AND MESH NETWORKING

8. Security Attacks in Ad Hoc, Sensor and Mesh Networks                        

      8.1 Security Attacks

            8.1.1 Passive Attacks

                     8.1.1.1 Eavesdropping

                     8.1.1.2 Traffic Analysis

            8.1.2 Active Attacks

                     8.1.2.1 Physical Attacks

                     8.1.2.2 Masquerade, Replay and Message Modification

                     8.1.2.3 Denial of Service Attacks

                                    8.1.2.3.1 DoS in Physical Layer

                                    8.1.2.3.2 DoS in Link Layer

                                    8.1.2.3.3 DoS against Routing Schemes

                                    8.1.2.3.4 DoS in Transport Layer

                                    8.1.2.3.5 DoS in Application Layer

                     8.1.2.4 Misbehaving

      8.2 Attackers

      8.3 Security Goals

      8.4 Review Questions

9. Cryptography                                                                                               

      9.1 Symmetric Encryption

      9.2 Asymmetric Encryption

      9.3 Hash Functions and Message Authentication Code

      9.4 Cascading Hashing

            9.4.1 Hash Chains

            9.4.2 Hash Trees

            9.4.3 Tesla

      9.5 Review Questions

10. Challenges and Solutions: Basic Issues                                                   

      10.1 Bootstrapping Security in Ad Hoc Networks

      10.2 Bootstrapping Security in Sensor Networks

      10.3 Key Distribution, Exchange and Management

            10.3.1 Standards

            10.3.2 Classification of Key Management Schemes

            10.3.3 Contributory Schemes

            10.3.4 Distributive Schemes

                     10.3.4.1 Public Key Schemes

                     10.3.4.2 Symmetric Schemes

      10.4 Authentication Issues

      10.5 Integrity

      10.6 Review Questions

11. Challenges and Solutions: Protection                                                       

      11.1 Privacy and Anonymity

      11.2 Intrusion Detection

            11.2.1 Architectures for IDS in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

      11.3 Defense against Traffic Analysis

      11.4 Access Control and Secure Human Computer Interaction

      11.5 Software Based Anti-Tamper Techniques

            11.5.1 Encryption Wrappers

            11.5.2 Code Obfuscation

            11.5.3 Software Watermarking and Fingerprinting

            11.5.4 Guarding

      11.6 Tamper Resilience: Hardware Protection

      11.7 Availability and Plausibility

      11.8 Review Questions

12. Secure Routing                                                                                          

12.1 Defense against Security Attacks in Ad Hoc Routing

12.1.1 Techniques against Wormhole Attacks

12.1.2 Techniques against Sybil Attacks

12.1.3 Techniques against Selective Forwarding

12.1.4 Secure Routing in Sensor Networks

12.1.4.1 Secure Multicasting and Broadcasting

13.1.4.2 Secure Data Aggregation

12.1.5 Routing Schemes that Enhances Security

12.2 Secure Ad Hoc Routing Protocols

12.2.1 Intrusion Tolerant Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks (INSENS)

12.2.1.1 Route Discovery Phase

12.2.1.2 Data Forwarding Phase

12.2.2 Authenticated Routing for Ad Hoc Networking (ARAN)

12.2.3 On Demand Secure Ad Hoc Routing (ARIADNE)

12.2.4 Watchdog Pathrater

12.2.5 Secure Ad Hoc on Demand Distance Vector (SAODV)

12.2.6 Secure Link State Routing Protocol (SLSP)

12.3 Further Reading

12.4 Review Questions

13. Specific Challenges and Solutions                                                            

      13.1 SPIN: Security Protocols for Sensor Networks

               13.1.1 SNEP

               13.1.2 ÁTESLA

      13.2 Quarantine Region Scheme for Spam Attacks

      13.3 Secure Charging and Rewarding Scheme

13.3.1 Establishing a Session

13.3.2 Packet Delivery

13.3.3 Acknowledging Delivery

13.3.4 Terminating a Session

      13.4 Secure Node Localization

               13.4.1 Detection of Malicious Beacon Nodes and Replayed Beacon Signals

               13.4.2 Attack Resistant Location Estimation

      13.5 Secure Time Synchronization

      13.6 Secure Event and Event Boundary Detection

13.6.1 Stage 1: Detection of Faulty Nodes

13.6.2 Stage 2: Detection of Event Boundary Nodes

13.6.3 Stage 3: Improvement for Event Boundary Node Detection

      13.7 Review Questions

14. Information Operations and Electronic Warfare                                     

14.1 Electronic Support

14.2 Electronic Attack

14.3 Electronic Protection

14.4 Review Questions

15. Standards                                                                                                   

      15.1 X.800 and RFC 2828

               15.1.1 Security Threat and Attack

               15.1.2 Security Services

               15.1.3 Security Mechanisms

               15.1.4 Relationships between Security Services and Mechanisms

               15.1.5 Placements of Security Services and Mechanisms

      15.2 Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP)

               15.2.1 How Does WEP Work?

               15.2.2 WEP Weaknesses

      15.3 WiFi Protected Access (WPA)

               15.3.1 How Does WPA Work?

               15.3.2 WEP and WPA Comparison

               15.3.3 WPA2